|Title||An SPM-Enriched Marine Oil Supplement Shifted Microglia Polarization toward M2, Ameliorating Retinal Degeneration in Mice.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||Olivares-González, L, Velasco, S, Gallego, I, Esteban-Medina, M, Puras, G, Loucera, C, Martínez-Romero, A, Peña-Chilet, M, Pedraz, JLuis, Rodrigo, R|
|Date Published||2022 Dec 30|
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal dystrophy causing progressive vision loss. It is accompanied by chronic and sustained inflammation, including M1 microglia activation. This study evaluated the effect of an essential fatty acid (EFA) supplement containing specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), on retinal degeneration and microglia activation in mice, a model of RP, as well as on LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. The EFA supplement was orally administered to mice from postnatal day (P)9 to P18. At P18, the electrical activity of the retina was examined by electroretinography (ERG) and innate behavior in response to light were measured. Retinal degeneration was studied via histology including the TUNEL assay and microglia immunolabeling. Microglia polarization (M1/M2) was assessed by flow cytometry, qPCR, ELISA and histology. Redox status was analyzed by measuring antioxidant enzymes and markers of oxidative damage. Interestingly, the EFA supplement ameliorated retinal dysfunction and degeneration by improving ERG recording and sensitivity to light, and reducing photoreceptor cell loss. The EFA supplement reduced inflammation and microglia activation attenuating M1 markers as well as inducing a shift to the M2 phenotype in mouse retinas and LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. It also reduced oxidative stress markers of lipid peroxidation and carbonylation. These findings could open up new therapeutic opportunities based on resolving inflammation with oral supplementation with SPMs such as the EFA supplement.
|Alternate Journal||Antioxidants (Basel)|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC9855087|